Maxillary tori are analogous to mandibular tori and are composed of densely mineralized bone usually devoid of a medullary cavity. Unlike in the mandible, where they arise on the inner surface, when arising from the maxilla they may project both inwards (in which case they arise from the midline of the hard palate, known as torus palatinus, or inner surface of the alveolar bone) or outwards (from the alveolar bone).
They are usually asymptomatic but may cause issues with eating and drinking.
The cause of such bony outgrowths has not been established but has been linked to genetics.
Bony outgrowths can be well appreciated
- from the alveolar bone (inner or outer)
- from midline hard palate, specifically from the palatine process of the maxilla (inward protrusion into the oral cavity, known as torus palatinus)
Treatment and prognosis
Tori are benign, slow growing and non-invasive. Removal is required only if they are symptomatic.
- 1. Yonetsu K, Nakamura T. CT of calcifying jaw bone diseases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001;177 (4): 937-43. doi:10.2214/ajr.177.4.1770937 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Nortjé CJ. General practitioner's radiology case 72. Torus palatinus and torus mandibularis. SADJ. 2009;64 (3): 126. Pubmed citation
- 3. Shah DS, Sanghavi SJ, Chawda JD et-al. Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in 1000 patients. Indian J Dent Res. 1994;3 (4): 107-10. Pubmed citation
- 4. Seah YH. Torus palatinus and torus mandibularis: a review of the literature. Aust Dent J. 1996;40 (5): 318-21. Pubmed citation