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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

613 results found
Article

60/60 sign (echocardiography)

The 60/60 sign in echocardiography refers to the coexistence of a truncated right ventricular outflow tract acceleration time (AT <60 ms) with a pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) of less than 60 mmHg (but more than 30 mmHg). In the presence of right ventricular failure, it is consisten...
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ACC/AHA classification of coronary lesions

ACC/AHA classification of coronary lesions is a system use to classify coronary arterial calcific plaque burden. It is classified as type A discrete (<10 mm) concentric  nonangulated segment <45º smooth contour little or no calcification less than totally occlusive not ostial in location...
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Accessory left atrial appendage

An accessory left atrial appendage is a frequent fortuitous finding in cardiac imaging, encountered in ~10% of patients. They are more often seen as a small diverticular structure projecting from the right upper side of the left atrial wall. Differential diagnosis it must not be confused with ...
Article

Ace-of-spades sign (heart)

Ace-of-spades sign refers to the pathognomonic configuration of the left ventricle as seen in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 1-3. It consists of marked ventricular wall thickening at the apex resulting in cavity narrowing at the apex with a relatively normal appearance of the mid-ventricula...
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Acute abdominal pain

Acute abdominal pain is a common acute presentation in clinical practice. It encompasses a very broad range of possible etiologies and diagnoses, and imaging is routinely employed as the primary investigative tool in its modern management. Terminology A subgroup of patients with acute abdomina...
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Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) unstable an...
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Acute right heart syndrome

Acute right heart syndrome (ARHS) is defined as a sudden deterioration in right ventricular (RV) function and failure of the RV to deliver adequate blood flow to the pulmonary circulation. This can result in systemic hypoperfusion. Pathology ARHS can occur in several settings 1 in the setting...
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Acyanotic congenital heart disease

Acyanotic congenital heart disease comprises numerous etiologies, which can be divided into those with increased pulmonary vascularity (pulmonary plethora) and those with normal vascularity: increased pulmonary vascularity ventricular septal defect (VSD) atrial septal defect (ASD) atrioventr...
Article

Agatston score

Agatston score is a semi-automated tool to calculate a score based on the extent of coronary artery calcification detected by an unenhanced low-dose CT scan, which is routinely performed in patients undergoing cardiac CT. Due to an extensive body of research, it allows for early risk stratificat...
Article

Ammonia (N-13)

13NH3 is a PET tracer used for studies of myocardial perfusion imaging. It is produced in a cyclotron by proton irradiation of the enriched water of the oxygen-16. Ammonia (N-13) is administered intravenously, at a dose of 10-20 mCi (370-740 Mbq) in adults; its physical half-life is 10 minutes. ...
Article

Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis (also known as anaphylactic shock or reaction) is an acute severe systemic type I hypersensitivity reaction, commonly presenting with urticaria/angioedema, hypotension and bronchial hyperreactivity. It may be fatal. Terminology Anaphylactoid reactions result from non-immune system ...
Article

Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
Article

Angina

Angina or angina pectoris is cardiac chest pain that occurs as the result of myocardial ischemia. Clinical presentation Angina is classically described as substernal chest discomfort that is of a typical quality and duration (heavy, tight, ‘bandlike’ pain that lasts for minutes at a time). Ang...
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Angiotensin converting enzyme

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a central component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which assists in blood pressure control by regulating the volume of fluids in the body. Normal individuals may have a small volume of the angiotensin converting enzyme circulating in their blood. M...
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Ankylosing spondylitis (cardiovascular manifestations)

Cardiovascular manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis may affect around 2-10% of all patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Cardiac complications include: left ventricular dysfunction: considered on of the commonest findings 3 aortic root dilatation: also a relatively frequent finding 3 righ...
Article

Anomalous course of coronary arteries

Anomalous course of a coronary artery is a type of congenital coronary artery anomaly. It may represent a benign and incidental finding, but can also be a malignant course predisposing patients to life-threatening myocardial ischemia or arrhythmias, depending on where the artery runs.  Clinical...
Article

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome (BWG), is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly and is considered one of the most severe of such anomalies. There are two forms, based on onset of disease, each of which has differe...
Article

Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterized by distorted self-perception of body weight leading to starvation, obsession with remaining underweight, and an excessive fear of gaining weight. One in five patients with anorexia dies due to complications of the disease. Epidemiology T...
Article

Anterior cardiac veins

The anterior cardiac veins are a group of parallel coronary veins that course over the anterior surface of the right ventricle, draining it and entering directly into the right atrium. They may occasionally drain into the small cardiac vein. 
Article

Aortic annulus

The aortic annulus is a fibrous ring at the aortic orifice to the front and right of the atrioventricular aortic valve and is considered the transition point between the left ventricle and aortic root. The annulus is part of the fibrous skeleton of the heart. It is at the level of the sinus of V...
Article

Aortic arch view (fetal echocardiogram)

An aortic arch view is one of the additional views performed on fetal obstetric ultrasound - fetal echocardiography. It is an oblique sagittal view which is obtained similar to a left anterior oblique angiogram or the sagittal arch view obtained in CT arteriography. The isthmus, after the origin...
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Aortic dissection

Aortic dissection is the most common form of the acute aortic syndromes and a type of arterial dissection. It occurs when blood enters the medial layer of the aortic wall through a tear or penetrating ulcer in the intima and tracks along the media, forming a second blood-filled channel within th...
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Aortic isthmus

The aortic isthmus is the part of the aorta just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery at the site of the ductus arteriosus. This portion of the aorta is partly constricted in the fetus because of the lack of flow within the aortic sac and ascending aorta. It marks the partial sepa...
Article

Aortic pseudoaneurysm versus ductus diverticulum

Differentiation of aortic pseudoaneurysm from ductus diverticulum is critical, particularly in the trauma setting. A traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm is a surgical emergency whereas a ductus diverticulum is a normal anatomic variant. The following are differentiating features: Aortic pseudoaneu...
Article

Aortic root

The aortic root is the first part of the aorta and connects the heart to the systemic circulation.  Gross anatomy The aortic root lies between the junction of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. It has several subparts 1: three aortic valve leaflets and leaflet attachments three aortic sin...
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Aortic root abscess

An aortic root abscess is a serious complication of infective endocarditis. Radiographic features General Abscesses tend to be saccular in shape, range from 1 to 3 cm in diameter. Depending on sinus of origin, extended beneath the main and right pulmonary arteries or into the interventricular...
Article

Aortic valve

The aortic valve (AV) is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the semilunar valve that allows blood to exit the left ventricle (LV). It opens during systole and closes during diastole. The valve has left, right, and posterior cusps, the bases of which attach around the valve orifice to a fibrou...
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Aortic valve calcification

Aortic valve calcification can be an important incidental observation thoracic radiography or CT imaging. It is considered a marker for clinically significant aortic stenosis. Prevalance According to some reports aortic valve calcification may be prevalent as an incidental finding up to 18% of...
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Aortic valve regurgitation

Aortic valve regurgitation, also known as aortic valve insufficiency or aortic valve incompetence, is a valvulopathy that describes leaking of the aortic valve during diastole that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction from the aorta and into the left ventricle. Epidemiology Aortic reg...
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Aortic valve stenosis

Aortic valve stenosis is the most common valvulopathy and describes narrowing of the opening of the aortic valve between the aorta and the left ventricle. Epidemiology Aortic stenosis is the most common valvulopathy, present in up to one-quarter of all patients with chronic valvular heart dise...
Article

Aortomitral continuity

The aortomitral continuity (also known as the aortomitral curtain, aorticomitral junction, intervalvular fibrous body) is a fibrous sheet located between the noncoronary and left coronary leaflets of the aortic valve and anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. It is attached by the left and right ...
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Aortopulmonary septal defect

Aortopulmonary septal defect (APSD), also known as aortopulmonary window (APW), is a congenital anomaly where there is an abnormal communication between the proximal aorta and the pulmonary trunk in the presence of separate aortic and pulmonary valves. Terminology APSD should not be confused w...
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Aorto-ventricular tunnel

Aorto-ventricular tunnel (AVT) is an extremely rare form of congenital heart disease, representing an anomalous extracardiac communication between the ascending aorta and the left or right ventricles. Terminology In most cases the anomalous communication is between the aorta and the left ventr...
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Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM or ApHCM), also known as Yamaguchi syndrome, is a rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which usually involves the apex of the left ventricle, rarely involves the right ventricular apex, or involves both apices. Epidemiology Historically, this condit...
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Approach to shock (echocardiography)

The presence of shock implies inadequate tissue perfusion, the end-point of which is multisystem organ failure and death. Echocardiography at the point-of-care is fast, non-invasive, and often pivotal in the diagnosis, resuscitation, and management of the patient with an undifferentiated shock s...
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), also referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) or simply arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, is a cardiomyopathy that is one of the more common causes of sudden cardiac death in young patients.  Epidemiology The estimate...
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Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy diagnostic criteria

For the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) to be made, patients must have either two major criteria, one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria. Major criteria global or regional dysfunction and structural alterations: severe dilatation of the ri...
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Arterial switch procedure

The arterial switch procedure, also known as the Jatene switch procedure, is an intervention designed to correct D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) at the level of the aorta and main pulmonary artery. It is generally preferred over atrial switch procedures for simple D-TGA due to impr...
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ARVC protocol (MRI)

The cardiac MRI ARVC protocol encompasses a set of different MRI sequences for the cardiac assessment in case of suspected arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a cardiac MRI protocol in the above setting.  Protocol specifics wil...
Article

Ascending aortic aneurysm

Ascending aortic aneurysms are the most common subtype of thoracic aortic aneurysms and may be true or false injuries.  Epidemiology Ascending aortic aneurysms represent 60% of thoracic aortic aneurysms.  Clinical presentation Typically ascending aortic aneurysms are an incidental finding an...
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Asystole

The diagnosis of asystole refers to a cardiac arrest rhythm with no electrical activity of the heart. It is the cardiac arrest rhythm with the poorest prognosis and is often irreversible 1. Asystole is one of the non-shockable rhythms, the other being pulseless electrical activity. Clinical pre...
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Athlete heart syndrome

Athlete heart syndrome refers to adaptations in both cardiac structure and function seen in people engaged in high-performance and endurance physical exercise. Epidemiology The prevalence of the condition has increased due to the increased popularity of recreational exercise, approx 3.6/100,00...
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Atrial escape

Atrial escape refers to a chest x-ray sign of massive left atrial enlargement and is an exaggerated version of the double density sign.   Normally, the right border of the left atrium is not visible. As it enlarges it forms a distinct border projecting through the right heart shadow, medial to ...
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Atrial fibrillation

A common consequence of atrial enlargement and/or inflammation, atrial fibrillation is a dysrhythmia originating from the atria, typically recognized on the electrocardiogram. It most commonly presents as a tachyarrhythmia, with ventricular rates between 120-130 beats per minute. Defining electr...
Article

Atrial-esophageal fistula

Atrio-esophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the esophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, and/or dysphagia, or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of at...
Article

Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the second most common congenital heart defect after ventricular septal defects and the most common to become symptomatic in adulthood. They are characterized by an abnormal opening in the atrial septum allowing communication between the right and left atria. Due t...
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Atrial septal occlusion device

Atrial septal occlusion devices are implantable cardiac devices used in patients with certain types of atrial septal defects. They are used in cases of atrial septal defects with right atrial or ventricle enlargement, to prevent paradoxical embolism, left-to-right shunting and platypnea-orthode...
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Atrioventricular septal defect

Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs), also known as atrioventricular canal defects or endocardial cushion defects, comprise a relatively wide range of defects involving the atrial septum, ventricular septum, and one or both of the tricuspid or mitral valve. They can represent 2-7% of congenit...
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Barlow disease (disambiguation)

Barlow disease could refer to: infantile scurvy - named after Sir Thomas Barlow (1845-1945) who demonstrated infantile scurvy to be the same disease as adult scurvy Barlow disease - mitral valve: form of mitral valve prolapse - named after John Brereton Barlow (1924-2008) 2
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Barth syndrome

Barth syndrome (BTHS), also known as 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type II, is an extremely rare X-linked multisystem disorder that is usually diagnosed in infancy. Epidemiology Barth syndrome has an estimated prevalence of 1 in 300,000-400,000 live births. Clinical presentation It is characte...
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Beck triad

Beck triad is a collection of three clinical signs associated with pericardial tamponade which is due to an excessive accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac.  The three signs are: low blood pressure (weak pulse or narrow pulse pressure) muffled heart sounds  raised jugular venous p...
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Behçet disease

Behçet disease is a multisystemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown etiology. Epidemiology The mean age at which Behçet disease occurs is 20-30 years. The disease is most prevalent in the Mediterranean region, Middle East and East Asia. The highest incidence has been reported in T...
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Bentall procedure

Bentall procedure is performed for the repair of ascending aortic root lesions. Typically the native aortic root and aortic valve are replaced with a composite graft that comprises both ascending aortic and aortic valve grafts, to which the coronary arteries are anastomosed. Complications post ...
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Bicuspid aortic valve

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) refers to a spectrum of deformed aortic valves with two functional leaflets or cusps which are often unequal in size. They are most often congenital while an acquired bicuspid valve occurs when there is fibrous fusion between the right and left cusps of a pre-existin...
Article

Biventricular cardiac pacemaker

Biventricular cardiac pacemakers, also known as cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT), refers to surgically implanted cardiac conduction devices with one lead in each ventricle (and generally one into the right atrium).  Components  lead in the right atrium  lead in the right ventricle  le...
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Blalock-Taussig shunt

Blalock-Taussig shunt, also known as Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt, is a palliative procedure designed to increase pulmonary arterial blood flow in patients with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (e.g. tetralogy of Fallot) or during initial staged repair of hypoplastic left heart syndro...
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Blocked premature atrial contractions

Blocked premature atrial contractions (BPACs) are considered a type cardiac bradyarrhythmia and if occurring in utero is classified under a fetal bradyarrhythmia. Pathology It is seen when a premature atrial contraction occurs very early on and consequently, it is not conducted into the ventri...
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Blood pressure

The blood pressure (BP) is defined as the force exerted by the circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. Fundamentally the blood pressure depends upon the interaction of: blood volume cardiac contractility compliance of the arterial walls Blood pressure is traditionally measured i...
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Blunt cardiac injury

Most commonly a result of sudden deceleration or direct precordial impact, blunt cardiac injury (BCI) encompasses a spectrum of structural and functional cardiac derangements which may occur after trauma to the heart 7. Terminology While sometimes referred to with general terms such as "cardia...
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Body imaging

Body imaging is the term assigned to cross-sectional imaging of the body, which radiologically refers to the chest, abdomen and pelvis. It is often used by radiologists who report this region (sometimes known as body imagers/radiologists) to differentiate their primary area of interest from othe...
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Boot shaped heart

A 'boot-shaped' heart ("cœur en sabot" in French) is the description given to the appearance of the heart on plain film in some cases of Tetralogy of Fallot. It describes the appearances of an upturned cardiac apex due to right ventricular hypertrophy and a concave pulmonary arterial segment. 
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Box-shaped heart

A box-shaped heart is a radiographic description given to the cardiac silhouette in some cases of Ebstein anomaly. The classic appearance of this finding is caused by the combination of the following features: huge right atrium that may fill the entire right hemithorax shelved appearance of th...
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Brugada syndrome

A cardiac "channelopathy" resulting from mutations in genes coding for cardiac sodium (Na+) channels, the Brugada syndrome is a common cardiac cause of sudden death in patients with structurally normal hearts. Epidemiology Age of diagnosis ranges from 2 days to 84 years old. It is estimated to...
Article

Cabrol shunt

The Cabrol shunt or Cabrol fistula, also known as a perigraft-to-right atrial shunt, is a technique used for uncontrolled bleeding following aortic root operations. Rationale The Cabrol shunt is applied when bleeding from an aortic root reconstruction cannot be controlled by traditional means ...
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Calcium density score

The calcium density score is referred to as a measure to quantify coronary artery calcium. Measurement Calcium density itself describes the concentration of calcium in a specific atherosclerotic plaque 1. Calcium density can be calculated by dividing the Agatston score by the total area of cal...
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Calcium mass score

The calcium mass score was introduced to determine the absolute mass of coronary artery calcium with the help of a cardiac calibration phantom and the use of correction factors 1,4. The method itself comprises the integration of signal above a given threshold 3. Even though, higher sensitivity ...
Article

Calcium volume score

The calcium volume score is referred to as a measure to quantify coronary artery calcium and is a variant to calculate coronary artery calcium 1-3. Its calculation includes all voxels with a Hounsfield attenuation > 130 and this is done by multiplying the volume of each voxel, determined by the...
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Carcinoid heart disease

Carcinoid heart disease, also known as Hedinger syndrome, is a known complication of carcinoid tumors, and is particularly prevalent in patients who develop carcinoid syndrome. Epidemiology Cardiac lesions are present in approximately 50% of patients with carcinoid syndrome 1. Clinical presen...
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Cardiac amyloidosis

Cardiac amyloidosis (plural: amyloidoses) is a significant source of morbidity among patients with systemic amyloidosis and is the most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy outside the tropics. Pathology Amyloidosis represents the extra-cellular deposition of insoluble fibrillar proteina...
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Cardiac angiosarcoma

Cardiac angiosarcomas are the most common sarcoma involving the heart (see cardiac tumors).  Please refer to the article on angiosarcomas for a general discussion about this entity. Epidemiology They occur slightly more frequently in males.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present wi...
Article

Cardiac blood pool scan

A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood pool scan (sometimes just called a MUGA scan) is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy.  Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypas...
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Cardiac calcification

Cardiac calcification is a broad term for any calcification affecting the valves, coronary arteries, aortic root, endocardium, myocardium, and/or pericardium. Pathology Causes of cardiac calcification are: coronary artery disease (most common) coronary artery aneurysms, e.g. in Kawasaki dise...
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Cardiac chamber enlargement

Cardiac chamber enlargement can be recognized by cardiac contour changes, new or different interfaces with adjacent lung, and/or displacement of adjacent mediastinal structures. These are discussed separately: right atrial enlargement right ventricular enlargement left atrial enlargement lef...
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Cardiac conduction devices

Implantable cardiac conduction devices (also known as cardiac implantable electronic devices or CIEDs) are a very common medical device of the thorax, with over one million implanted in the United States of America alone. There are two major types of cardiac conduction devices: pacemakers and a...
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Cardiac CT

Computed tomography of the heart or cardiac CT is routinely performed to gain knowledge about cardiac or coronary anatomy, to detect or diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD), to evaluate patency of coronary artery bypass grafts or implanted coronary stents or to evaluate volumetry and cardiac f...
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Cardiac curriculum

The cardiac curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core cardiac knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to the heart and pericardium, but excluding the mediastinum (see: chest curriculum) and great vessels (see: vascular curricul...
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Cardiac fibroma

Cardiac fibromas, also known as cardiac fibromatosis, are benign congenital cardiac tumors that usually manifest in children.  Epidemiology Cardiac fibromas are tumors that primarily affect children (most cases are detected in infants or in utero) with a ratio of 4:1 compared with adults 5. Th...
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Cardiac fibrous skeleton

The fibrous skeleton of the heart is a complex set of collagenous rings that connect annuli of all four cardiac valves. Between the four annuli are two trigones (right and left) and the membranous portions of the interatrial, interventricular, and atrioventricular septa. The annuli of the two se...
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Cardiac gating (MRI)

Cardiac gating or cardiac triggering refers to the gain of information about specific time points and its use for image acquisition during the cardiac cycle. Technique Cardiac synchronization can be achieved by the ECG signal or alternatively with a peripheral pulse transducer. The following t...
Article

Cardiac herniation

Cardiac herniation refers to herniation of the heart outside its expected position. It can be intrathoracic or extrathoracic. Pathology A cardiac herniation secondary to pericardial rupture is rare, but a highly lethal injury with most patients dying before arrival at a hospital. Diagnosis in...
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Cardiac imaging planes

Cardiac imaging planes are standard orientations for displaying the heart on MRI, CT, SPECT, and PET, similar to those used in echocardiography. The planes are defined in reference to the long axis of the left ventricle, which is the line that connects the ventricular apex to the center of the m...
Article

Cardiac iron overload protocol (MRI)

The cardiac MRI iron overload protocol encompasses a set of different MRI sequences for the cardiac assessment in case of suspected iron overload cardiomyopathy. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a cardiac MRI protocol in the above setting.  Protocol specifics will vary dep...
Article

Cardiac lipoma

Cardiac lipomas are uncommon benign primary cardiac neoplasms although they are considered the commonest non-myxomatous benign primary cardiac tumor 8. Epidemiology They have no defined age or sex distribution. Clinical presentation They are soft and may grow to a large size without causing ...
Article

Cardiac lymphoma

Cardiac lymphoma is a rare tumor of the myocardium and/or pericardium. It may be considered as primary or secondary. Epidemiology Primary cardiac lymphoma is a rare occurrence, representing only 10% of primary malignant cardiac tumors (1% of all primary cardiac tumors). Secondary involvement ...
Article

Cardiac MRI

Cardiac MRI consists of using MRI to study heart anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Advantages In comparison to other techniques, cardiac MRI offers: improved soft tissue definition protocol can be tailored to likely differential diagnoses a large number of sequences are available dynamic...
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Cardiac MRI (an approach)

A cardiac MRI can be a more or less frequent examination faced in daily practice also depending on the institution. In general radiological practices and institutions other than cardiac imaging centers, cardiac MRI examinations are not necessarily gladly enlisted into the appointment schedule pa...
Article

Cardiac myxoma

Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of the commonest primary cardiac tumors and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumors.  Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas are mo...
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Cardiac output and cardiac index

Cardiac output (CO) and cardiac index (CI) are important hemodynamic parameters characterizing cardiac function and reflecting body metabolism. Usage Cardiac output (CO) and cardiac index (CI) are used in the evaluation of patients with heart disease and critically ill patients as well as pati...
Article

Cardiac plexus

The cardiac plexus is a plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart. It is formed by cardiac branches derived from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Gross anatomy Sympathetic cardiac nerves are derived from T1 to T4 segments and partly from the T5 segment of the ...
Article

Cardiac position

The cardiac position in the thorax may be described as: levocardia: left-sided heart dextrocardia: right-sided heart mesocardia: midline heart These terms purely describe the anatomic position of the left ventricular apex in the chest and their use does not indicate anything about the struct...
Article

Cardiac restraint device

Cardiac restraint devices are implantable cardiac devices which aim to reduce ventricular wall stress, improve systolic function and reduce cardiac remodeling. Cardiac restraint devices act to support the ventricular wall with an elastic mesh network which offers passive pressure to support the...
Article

Cardiac rhabdomyoma

Cardiac rhabdomyomas are a type of benign myocardial tumor and are considered the most common fetal cardiac tumor. They have a strong association with tuberous sclerosis. Epidemiology Cardiac rhabdomyomas are often multiple and can represent up to 90% of cardiac tumors in the pediatric populat...
Article

Cardiac sclerosis

Cardiac sclerosis, or "cardiac cirrhosis" is the end-point of passive hepatic congestion from heart failure.  Pathology Etiology Causes of cardiac cirrhosis include 1: ischemic heart disease: ~30% cardiomyopathy: ~25% valvular heart disease: ~25% restrictive lung disease: ~15% pericardia...

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